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Industrial Organic Chemistry: Concepts, Processes and Applications by Weissermel and Arpe


Quimica Organica Industrial Weissermel Pdf 12




Industrial organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the synthesis, processing and utilization of organic compounds in various industries. It covers a wide range of topics, from the production of basic chemicals such as methanol, ethylene and benzene, to the conversion of these chemicals into more complex products such as plastics, detergents, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Industrial organic chemistry is closely related to other disciplines such as chemical engineering, biotechnology, environmental science and economics.




Quimica Organica Industrial Weissermel Pdf 12



In this article, we will introduce a book that provides a comprehensive overview of industrial organic chemistry: Industrial Organic Chemistry by Klaus Weissermel and Hans-Jürgen Arpe. We will briefly describe the authors, the content and the structure of the book, as well as some of its main features and benefits. We will also highlight some of the key topics covered in the book, such as the energy and raw material supply, the basic products of industrial syntheses, and selected conversion products of olefins, acetylene, carbon monoxide and aromatics.


Introduction




What is industrial organic chemistry?




Industrial organic chemistry is defined as "the science concerned with substances produced by chemical industry" . It involves the application of organic chemistry principles and techniques to the large-scale production of organic compounds for various purposes. Industrial organic chemistry is not only concerned with the synthesis of organic molecules, but also with their purification, separation, analysis, modification, formulation, storage, transport and disposal. Industrial organic chemistry also considers the economic, environmental and social aspects of chemical production, such as cost-effectiveness, energy efficiency, waste management, safety regulations and ethical issues.


Who are Weissermel and Arpe?




Klaus Weissermel (1930-2016) was a German chemist who worked for BASF for more than 30 years. He was involved in various research projects on petrochemistry, coal chemistry, catalysis and polymerization. He was also a professor at the University of Karlsruhe (now Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) from 1975 to 1995. He authored or co-authored more than 100 publications and several books on industrial chemistry .


Hans-Jürgen Arpe (1930-2019) was also a German chemist who worked for BASF for more than 30 years. He was responsible for various research areas such as organometallics, olefin oxidation, acetylene chemistry and fine chemicals. He was also a professor at the University of Stuttgart from 1978 to 1995. He authored or co-authored more than 150 publications and several books on industrial chemistry .


What is the content of their book?




Industrial Organic Chemistry by Weissermel and Arpe is a book that provides a comprehensive overview of industrial organic chemistry. It covers the most important precursors and intermediates used in the chemical industry, as well as their synthesis routes, properties, applications and markets. The book also discusses the various aspects of the energy and raw material supply for chemical production, such as fossil fuels, biomass, natural gas, synthesis gas and coal. The book is divided into three main parts: introduction (chapter 1), basic products (chapters 2-6) and conversion products (chapters 7-14). The book has been translated into eight languages (including Spanish) and has been published in five German editions (the latest in 2018) and four English editions (the latest in 2003) .


Main body




Various aspects of the energy and raw material supply




Fossil fuels and biomass




The main sources of energy and raw materials for chemical production are fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal) and biomass (wood, crops and waste). Fossil fuels are rich in hydrocarbons that can be converted into various organic compounds by cracking (breaking down large molecules into smaller ones), reforming (changing the structure or composition of molecules) or synthesis (combining small molecules into larger ones). Biomass is rich in carbohydrates that can be converted into various organic compounds by hydrolysis (splitting molecules with water), fermentation (converting sugars into alcohols or acids by microorganisms) or gasification (converting solid biomass into synthesis gas by heating with oxygen or steam) .


Natural gas and synthesis gas




Natural gas is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons that mainly consists of methane (CH4). It can be used as a fuel or a feedstock for chemical production. Natural gas can be converted into synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2)) by steam reforming (reacting with steam at high temperature over a catalyst) or partial oxidation (reacting with oxygen at high temperature). Synthesis gas can be further converted into various organic compounds by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (forming hydrocarbons by catalytic polymerization), methanol synthesis (forming methanol by catalytic hydrogenation), oxo synthesis (forming aldehydes by catalytic hydroformylation) or carbonylation (forming carboxylic acids by catalytic addition of CO) .


Coal and coal liquefaction




Coal is a solid fossil fuel that mainly consists of carbon. It can be used as a fuel or a feedstock for chemical production. Coal can be converted into liquid hydrocarbons by coal liquefaction (a process that involves heating coal with hydrogen under high pressure). Coal liquefaction can be direct (converting coal directly into liquid products) or indirect (converting coal into synthesis gas first and then into liquid products). Coal liquefaction can produce various organic compounds such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene, naphtha or lubricants .


Basic products of industrial syntheses




Methanol and formaldehyde




Methanol (CH3OH) is one of the simplest organic compounds that can be produced from synthesis gas by catalytic hydrogenation. Methanol can be used as a fuel or a feedstock for chemical production. Methanol can be converted into formaldehyde (HCHO) by catalytic oxidation or dehydrogenation. Formaldehyde can be used as a disinfectant or a feedstock for chemical production. Formaldehyde can be converted into various organic compounds such as urea (by reaction with ammonia), phenol-formaldehyde resins (by reaction with phenol), melamine-formaldehyde resins (by reaction with melamine) or polyoxymethylene plastics (by polymerization) .


Ethylene and propylene




Ethylene (C2H4) and propylene (C3H6) are two important olefins that can be produced from petroleum or natural gas by cracking. Olefins are unsaturated hydrocarbons that have one or more double bonds between carbon atoms. Ethylene and propylene can be used as fuels or feedstocks for chemical production. Ethylene and propylene Ethylene and propylene conversion products




Ethylene and propylene can be converted into various organic compounds by different reactions, such as oxidation, hydration, halogenation, polymerization or metathesis. Some of the most important conversion products of ethylene and propylene are listed below .


Ethylene conversion products Uses --- --- Ethylene oxide Industrial solvents; antifreeze; polyester fibers and resins Ethylene glycol Antifreeze; polyester fibers and resins Ethylene dichloride Solvent; vinyl chloride production Vinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production Vinyl acetate Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) production; paints; adhesives; textiles Polyethylene Plastic bags; toys; packaging Propylene conversion products Uses --- --- Isopropyl alcohol Rubbing alcohol; cosmetics; acetone production Propylene oxide Polyurethane and polyester production Cumene Phenol and acetone production Polypropylene Molded articles; fibers for carpets Acrylic acid Acrylate esters production; superabsorbent polymers One of the most exciting methods for converting ethylene to propylene is the tandem catalysis process that involves two catalysts: a Ni-based catalyst for ethylene dimerization to 1-butene and a W-based catalyst for 1-butene isomerization and metathesis with ethylene to propylene . This process can achieve high selectivity and yield of propylene at low temperature (50-150 C) .


Conclusion




Summary of the main points




In this article, we have introduced a book that provides a comprehensive overview of industrial organic chemistry: Industrial Organic Chemistry by Klaus Weissermel and Hans-Jürgen Arpe. We have briefly described the authors, the content and the structure of the book, as well as some of its main features and benefits. We have also highlighted some of the key topics covered in the book, such as the energy and raw material supply, the basic products of industrial syntheses, and selected conversion products of olefins, acetylene, carbon monoxide and aromatics.


Importance and applications of industrial organic chemistry




Industrial organic chemistry is an important branch of chemistry that deals with the synthesis, processing and utilization of organic compounds in various industries. It covers a wide range of topics, from the production of basic chemicals such as methanol, ethylene and benzene, to the conversion of these chemicals into more complex products such as plastics, detergents, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Industrial organic chemistry is closely related to other disciplines such as chemical engineering, biotechnology, environmental science and economics. Industrial organic chemistry has many applications in our daily life, such as providing fuels, solvents, disinfectants, cosmetics, textiles, packaging and more.


Future trends and challenges




Industrial organic chemistry is facing several challenges and opportunities in the future. Some of the challenges are related to the environmental impact of chemical production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, waste generation, water consumption and pollution. Some of the opportunities are related to the development of new technologies and processes that can improve the efficiency, sustainability and diversity of chemical production, such as biocatalysis, biomass conversion, renewable energy sources and green chemistry. Industrial organic chemistry will continue to play a vital role in meeting the growing demand for organic compounds in various sectors.


FAQs




  • What is industrial organic chemistry?



Industrial organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the synthesis, processing and utilization of organic compounds in various industries.


  • Who are Weissermel and Arpe?



Weissermel and Arpe are two German chemists who worked for BASF and authored a book on industrial organic chemistry.


  • What is the content of their book?



Their book provides a comprehensive overview of industrial organic chemistry. It covers the most important precursors and intermediates used in the chemical industry, as well as their synthesis routes, properties, applications and markets.


  • What are some examples of basic products of industrial syntheses?



Some examples are methanol, ethylene, propylene, acetylene and carbon monoxide.


  • What are some examples of conversion products of olefins, acetylene and carbon monoxide?



Some examples are ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, vinyl chloride, polyethylene, isopropyl alcohol, propylene oxide, polypropylene, acetic acid, acetic anhydride and phenol.



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